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1.
In 1993, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the first drug specifically for treating multiple sclerosis (MS). More than two decades later, a dozen such treatments are now available. Of these, four are considered second-line treatments for use in escalation strategies and two new drugs are currently undergoing accreditation procedures. Soon, they will provide clinicians with a range of six effective disease-modifying treatments (DMTs) to thwart the inflammatory processes in MS patients with active disease. However, while such a large number of DMTs for MS can help to control early inflammation, any decisions to be made by clinicians have also been made substantially more complex. This complexity is increased by the lack of head-to-head studies comparing these second-line therapies and the benefit–risk profiles for each of these drugs, which are likely to vary among patients. Ultimately, good awareness of the benefits and, more important, the risks of each MS DMT is crucial for the effective management of inflammation in MS.  相似文献   
2.
Multiple sclerosis is a demyelinating disease which is presumed to be a consequence of infiltrating lymphocytes autoreactive to myelin proteins. This is substantiated by several lines of clinical evidence and supported by correlative studies in preclinical models. The development of new therapeutics for MS has been guided by this perspective; however, the pathogenesis of MS has proven to be quite complex as observations exist which question the role of autoreactive lymphocytes in the etiology of MS. In addition the current immunomodulatory therapeutics do not prevent most patients from progressing into more serious forms of the disease. The development of truly transformational therapeutics for MS will likely require a broad assault that expands beyond the concept of MS being an autoimmune disease.  相似文献   
3.
Background and purposeOral fingolimod 0.5 mg daily was approved in the European Union in 2011 for the treatment of relapsing multiple sclerosis in the aggressive form and as a second line treatment in patients with high disease activity despite interferon beta therapy. The aim of this study was the evaluation of efficacy, safety and tolerance of fingolimod in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) during a 12-month observation period.Material and methodsThe investigated group consisted of 11 patients aged between 23 and 63 years. All patients underwent immunomodulatory treatment (disease modifying drugs – DMD) or immunomodulatory treatment in combination with mitoxantrone (Mx) without a positive effect for 3–5 years. Patients received oral fingolimod 0.5 mg daily during 12 months. Disability was evaluated with Kurtzke Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scale. Safety and tolerability of fingolimod were evaluated by adverse events monitoring, laboratory tests, and ophthalmological and skin assessment.ResultsBefore the initiation of fingolimod treatment all the patients progressed in disability and in MRI changes including five cases with gadolinium-enhancing lesions. During fingolimod treatment there was no new relapse in any patient and no patient stopped the treatment because of any adverse event. During the 12-month treatment, EDSS improvement was observed in seven patients, three patients were stable, and one patient progressed by 0.5 point in the EDSS.ConclusionsIn our study patients fingolimod was effective, safe and well tolerated independently of disease activity and previous treatment.  相似文献   
4.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common neurological disorder leading to permanent disability in young adults in the developed world. While traditionally conceived as an autoimmune inflammatory disease it is becoming increasingly evident that axonal and neuronal degeneration occur, at least partly independent of inflammation, and already at the earliest stages of the disease. In addition, it is the progressive neurodegeneration which determines the amount of accumulating clinical disability. Therefore, MS should be considered as a neurodegenerative disorder. Development of disease-modifying drugs to treat MS is currently highly dynamic. Already, several drugs have shown short-term efficacy to delay progression of clinical disability, but the ultimate aim is to halt disease progression. In this context, the development of sensitive, reliable and valid biomarkers to measure neurodegeneration is an indispensible need to facilitate successful informative clinical trials. While no such biomarker is currently fully established, several promising candidate biomarkers obtained with multimodal techniques, including cerebrospinal fluid and serum analysis, neuroimaging and neurophysiology, are presently developed and evaluated. This paper compiles an up-to-date critical review of the available knowledge of candidate biomarkers of neurodegenerative processes in MS.  相似文献   
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Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a central role in the management of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). T2-weighted/FLAIR lesions have been included in the diagnostic criteria since 2001, and the importance of the technology has been expanded in each successive revision of the McDonald criteria. While the typical focal hyperintense lesions seen on T2 and FLAIR sequences in several areas of the central nervous system are key features for MS diagnosis, they can also be used to monitor disease activity, particularly in asymptomatic patients, and to evaluate therapeutic responses. The development of new lesions, particularly in medullary and infratentorial locations, is a strong predictor of long-term disability and risk of evolution to a secondary-progressive phase. Yet, changes in T2 lesion volume are poor predictors of subsequent disease evolution in many cases, a situation often referred to as the “clinicoradiological paradox”. Nevertheless, advanced MRI techniques allow quantification of several pathological processes in vivo and offer insights into MS pathophysiology beyond white matter lesions. By investigating what is happening beneath the visible surface of MS pathology, these techniques not only help to unravel the clinicoradiological paradox, but also provide early measures of functional and structural tissue abnormalities before the advent of irreversible neurodegeneration.  相似文献   
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Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the CNS with a high prevalence of depression. Both MS and depression have been linked to elevated cortisol levels and inflammation, indicating disturbed endocrine-immune regulation. An imbalance in mineralocorticoid versus glucocorticoid signaling in the CNS has been proposed as a pathogenetic mechanism of depression. Intriguingly, both receptors are also expressed in lymphocytes, but their role for 'escape' of the immune system from endocrine control is unknown. Using steroid sensitivity of T cell function as a read-out system, we here investigate a potential role of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) versus glucocorticoid receptor (GR) regulation in the immune system as a biological mechanism underlying MS-associated major depression. Twelve female MS patients meeting diagnostic criteria for current major depressive disorder (MDD) were compared to twelve carefully matched MS patients without depression. We performed lymphocyte phenotyping by flow cytometry. In addition, steroid sensitivity of T cell proliferation was tested using hydrocortisone as well as MR (aldosterone) and GR (dexamethasone) agonists. Sensitivity to hydrocortisone was decreased in T cells from depressed MS patients. Experiments with agonists suggested disturbed MR regulation, but intact GR function. Importantly, there were no differences in lymphocyte composition and frequency of T cell subsets, indicating that the differences in steroid sensitivity are unlikely to be secondary to shifts in the immune compartment. To our knowledge, this study provides first evidence for altered steroid sensitivity of T cells from MS patients with comorbid MDD possibly due to MR dysregulation.  相似文献   
9.
多发性硬化(MS)是中枢神经系统最常见的慢性炎性脱髓鞘疾病,最常累及的部位为脑室周围白质、视神经、脊髓、脑干和小脑,病因和发病机制迄今不明。MS为缓慢进行性疾病,其治疗过程长,目前尚无完全治愈本病的药物。复发缓解型MS(RRMS)是MS最常见的类型,约占80%~85%,对其急性期和缓解期的治疗有助于减少复发,减缓疾病进展,提高患者生存质量。该文就这方面的研究进展进行综述。  相似文献   
10.
Although neurons are the main source of neurotrophins in the healthy brain, neurotrophins can also be expressed in the immune system. We have previously shown that in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) lower immune-cell neurotrophin levels are associated with brain atrophy and cognitive impairment. The aim of the present study was to assess if immune-cell neurotrophin expression is impaired in MS as compared with the healthy controls, and to describe if these levels change in treatment-naïve RRMS patients, following one year of immunomodulation.Fifty treatment-naïve RRMS patients were assessed at baseline and after one year of immunomodulation (beta-interferons/glatiramer acetate). The control group included 39 healthy subjects matched according to age and gender. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from heparinized blood using Ficoll-Histopaque gradient. The levels of brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor (BDNF), beta-nerve-growth-factor (beta-NGF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and neurotrophin-4/5 (NT-4/5) were measured in PBMC lysates with ELISA.BDNF levels were significantly lower in MS than in the healthy controls (median 613 vs. 1657 pg/mg protein, p < 0.001). After one year of immunomodulation, BDNF expression did not change significantly (p = 0.06) on the group level. In 70% of patients there was no increase in BDNF level, and in 30% it increased. We observed no differences between treatment groups. Other neurotrophins were detected in a minority of MS samples (as opposed to the controls).To conclude, we have shown that immune-cell production of neurotrophins is impaired in MS patients. In our MS cohort standard immunomodulation failed to restore normal BDNF levels in PBMCs within one year of therapy.  相似文献   
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