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Selective atrophy of the hippocampus, in particular the left CA1 subregion, is detectable in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) and is correlated with verbal memory performance. We used novel high-resolution imaging techniques to assess the role that functional compensation and/or white matter integrity of mesial temporal lobe (MTL) structures may play in mediating verbal memory performance in RRMS. High-resolution cortical unfolding of structural MRI in conjunction with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to localize MTL activity in 18 early RRMS patients and 16 healthy controls during an unrelated word-pairs memory task. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) were used to assess the integrity of the fornix and the parahippocampal white matter (PHWM), the major efferents and afferents of the hippocampus. RRMS patients showed greater activity in hippocampal and extra-hippocampal areas during unrelated word-pair learning and recall. Increased hippocampal activity, particularly in the right anterior hippocampus and left anterior CA1 was associated with higher verbal memory scores. Furthermore, increased fractional anisotropy (FA) in the fornix was correlated with both greater fMRI activity in this region and better memory performance. Altered hippocampal fMRI activity in RRMS patients during verbal learning may result from both structural damage and compensatory mechanisms. Successful functional compensation for hippocampal involvement in RRMS may be limited in part by white matter damage to the fornix, consistent with the critical role of this pathway in the clinical expression of memory impairment in MS.  相似文献
2.
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a sensitive tool for detecting microstructural tissue damage in vivo. In this study, we investigated DTI abnormalities in individuals with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and examined the relations between imaging-based measures of white matter injury and cognitive impairment. DTI-derived metrics using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) were compared between 37 individuals with RRMS and 20 healthy controls. Cognitive impairment was assessed with three standard tests: the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), which measures cognitive processing speed and visual working memory, the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), which examines verbal memory, and the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT), which assesses sustained attention and working memory. Correlations between DTI-metrics and cognition were explored in regions demonstrating significant differences between the RRMS patients and the control group. Lower fractional anisotropy (FA) was found in RRMS participants compared to controls across the tract skeleton (0.40 ± 0.03 vs. 0.43 ± 0.01, p < 0.01). In areas of reduced FA, mean diffusivity was increased and was dominated by increased radial diffusivity with no significant change in axial diffusivity, an indication of the role of damage to CNS myelin in MS pathology. In the RRMS group, voxelwise correlations were found between FA reduction and cognitive impairment in cognitively-relevant tracts, predominantly in the posterior thalamic radiation, the sagittal stratum, and the corpus callosum; the strongest correlations were with SDMT measures, with contributions to these associations from both lesion and normal-appearing white matter. Moreover, results using threshold-free cluster enhancement (TFCE) showed more widespread white matter involvement compared to cluster-based thresholding. These findings indicate the important role for DTI in delineating mechanisms underlying MS-associated cognitive impairment and suggest that DTI could play a critical role in monitoring the clinical and cognitive effects of the disease.  相似文献
3.
Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of rituximab (RTX) treatment given off-label to Cypriot patients with multiple sclerosis (MS).

Methods: Clinical data from 30 MS patients ever treated with off-label RTX until mid-2018 at the Cyprus Institute of Neurology and Genetics were retrospectively collected and reviewed. The heterogeneous patient cohort included patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), primary progressive MS (PPMS) and secondary progressive MS (SPMS). Outcome data (relapse rate and EDSS progression) as well as adverse effects for patients with a follow-up period of >12 months (n = 13) were recorded.

Results: Following RTX administration, all patients with RRMS remained relapse free and had a stable or slightly improved EDSS score (mean EDSS before treatment = 6, mean EDSS at 12 months = 4.75). Patients with SPMS had a significant reduction in their relapse rate and a stabilization or slight improvement of their EDSS scores (mean EDSS before treatment = 6.25, mean EDSS at 12 months = 5.5). Only one of the patients with PPMS had a follow-up period of >12 months and his EDSS score remained unchanged. Rituximab infusions were generally well tolerated; there were only seven grade 3 or 4 adverse events recorded.

Conclusion: Our results are in agreement with larger retrospective studies in which it was demonstrated that RTX was well tolerated and effective in treating RRMS and SPMS patients by reducing relapse rate and stabilizing disease.  相似文献
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