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1.
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is frequently used for studies of multiple sclerosis (MS). Because in most EAE models T cells mediate the pathology in the absence of B cells/autoantibodies, the notion has evolved that also MS may be a primarily T cell-mediated disease. We have previously introduced MBP-PLP fusion protein (MP4)-induced EAE in C57BL/6 mice. Here we show that the disease in this model is antibody-dependent. Immunization of B cell-deficient mice did not induce EAE. When such B cell-deficient mice were, however, injected with MBP/PLP-specific antibodies in addition to the immunization with MP4, they developed disease of a severity and course that was similar to the wild-type mice. The deposition of antibodies in demyelinated lesions provided further evidence for the contribution of MBP/PLP-specific antibodies to CNS lesion formation. Based upon these data we suggest a two-stage model for the involvement of MBP/PLP-specific antibodies in autoimmune CNS pathology.  相似文献   
2.
FTY720, an oral sphingosine 1‐phosphate (S1P) receptor modulator, has shown efficacy in phase II trials in patients with relapsing‐remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). Although this molecule is thought to immunosuppress by inhibiting lymphocyte egress from the lymph nodes, the full spectrum of FTY720's actions has not yet been uncovered. In this study, we investigated the effects of FTY720 treatment on disease severity and histopathology of MOG‐induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in the dark agouti (DA) rat, a model that closely mimics several features of MS. The effects of FTY720 on T‐cell subsets, anti‐MOG antibody production, and mRNA expression of a number of cytokines and other genes were also examined. Commencement of treatment before disease onset prevented the appearance of clinical disease. Therapeutic treatment after established disease reduced clinical scores and substantially attenuated inflammation, demyelination, and axon loss. EAE suppression was associated with a reduction in all measured T‐cell subsets in blood and spleen and a significant decrease in serum IgG2a levels. However, in the lymph nodes, all T‐cell subsets except for naïve T cells and recent thymic emigrants remained unaffected. In addition, FTY720 treatment led to a significant inhibition in interferon‐γ, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and glial cell line‐derived neurotrophic factor mRNA expression in the MOG‐EAE spinal cord. In conclusion, our findings indicate that FTY720‐mediated S1P receptor modulation ameliorates chronic relapsing MOG‐EAE by suppressing both cellular and humoral immune responses. © 2009 Wiley‐Liss, Inc.  相似文献   
3.
目的:以髓鞘少突胶质细胞糖蛋白细胞外免疫球蛋白样结构域(MOGIgd)为抗原免疫C57BL/6小鼠,建立EAE模型,并检测AQP-4、CD4+CD25+T细胞的表达水平。方法:①采用分子克隆技术诱导表达MOGIgd-TrxA融合蛋白,纯化后以此融合蛋白为抗原于侧腹壁皮下多点注射免疫C57BL/6小鼠作为实验组(MOG组);同时以硫氧还蛋白(TrxA)、豚鼠脊髓匀浆(GPSCH)免疫小鼠分别作为阴性、阳性组。评估动物的临床神经功能、组织病理情况,评价模型的质量。②免疫组化法、荧光定量PCR技术测定AQP-4表达水平;经流式细胞仪(FACS)检测小鼠脾脏中CD4+CD25+调节性T细胞。结果:①MOG组及GP-SCH组小鼠均呈慢性非缓解型病程,两组在发病时间、达峰时间、临床神经功能评分等方面差异无统计学意义(P0.05)。TrxA组无一动物发病。模型组(包括MOG组和GPSCH组)动物HE染色可见血管周围炎性细胞浸润,胶质结节形成,髓鞘染色可见斑片状髓鞘脱失,大脑、小脑、脑干和脊髓均有不同程度受累。免疫组化定性和半定量分析显示MOG组和GPSCH组病灶周围炎症浸润处AQP-4表达与TrxA组相比明显增高(P0.05);②MOG组CD4+CD25+T细胞占CD4+T细胞比例为(4.71±1.61)%,GPSCH组为(1.44±0.65)%,均明显低于TrxA组(P0.01),且MOG组和GPSCH组之间的差异亦具有统计学意义(P0.01)。结论:用MOGIgd免疫C57BL/6小鼠诱导EAE模型稳定,发病率高,为今后进一步研究MS的免疫发病机制和采取有效治疗措施打下基础。EAE模型动物AQP-4的表达量与炎症浸润的严重程度相关。  相似文献   
4.
The role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is still unclear. Here we investigate the clinical course, CNS histopathology and peripheral antigen-specific immunity in MP4-induced EAE of BDNF (−/+) mice. We demonstrate that these mice displayed less severe disease compared to BDNF (+/+) mice, reflected by decreased inflammation and demyelination. In correspondence to diminished frequencies of T and B cells in CNS infiltrates, the peripheral MP4-specific TH1/TH17 response was attenuated in BDNF (−/+), but not in wild-type animals. In contrast, immunization with ovalbumin triggered similar frequencies of IFN-γ- and IL-17-secreting T cells in both groups. The cytokine secretion and proliferative activity upon mitogen stimulation did not reveal any global defect of T cell function in BDNF (−/+) mice. By influencing the antigen-specific immune response in autoimmune encephalomyelitis, BDNF may support and maintain the disease in ways that go beyond its alleged neuroprotective role.  相似文献   
5.
Introduction  Inducible costimulatory molecule (ICOS) is important for the effector function of T cells, especially for Th2 and T cell dependent B cell responses. However, it has been shown that ICOS is required for the differentiation of Th17 cells. Since IL-17 has been identified as a major cytokine involved in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the enhanced severity of EAE in ICOS-deficient mice (ICOS−/−) mice is unexpected. Methods  To better understand the role of ICOS and of IL-17 in EAE, we induced EAE in ICOS−/− by immunization with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide (MOG35–55) in complete Freund’s adjuvant. Results  As previously reported, we found that ICOS−/− mice developed more severe EAE. Upon restimulation with MOG35–55, splenocytes from ICOS−/− mice with EAE produced higher amounts of IL-17 and ICOS−/− mice had a higher expression of IL-17, IL-6, and TGF-β mRNA in the spinal cords at the onset of the disease. Finally, the blockade of IL-17 strongly inhibited disease even in ICOS−/− mice, showing that IL-17 is playing a major role in the pathogenesis of EAE both in WT and ICOS−/− mice. Conclusion  In conclusion, MOG immunization induces MOG-specific Th17 cells also in ICOS−/− mice, and a higher expression of IL-17 and of Th17-driving cytokines IL-6 and TGF-β in the central nervous system at the onset of EAE that correlates with their more severe disease.  相似文献   
6.
The commensal microbiota has emerged as an environmental risk factor for multiple sclerosis (MS). Studies in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) models have shown that the commensal microbiota is an essential player in triggering autoimmune demyelination. Likewise, the commensal microbiota modulates the host immune system, alters the integrity and function of biological barriers and has a direct effect on several types of central nervous system (CNS)-resident cells. Moreover, a characteristic gut dysbiosis has been recognized as a consistent feature during the clinical course of MS, and the MS-related microbiota is gradually being elucidated. This review highlights animal studies in which commensal microbiota modulation was tested in EAE, as well as the mechanisms of action and influence of the commensal microbiota not only in the local milieu but also in the innate and adaptive immune system and the CNS. Regarding human research, this review focuses on studies that show how the commensal microbiota might act as a pathogenic environmental risk factor by directing immune responses towards characteristic pathogenic profiles of MS. We speculate how specific microbiome signatures could be obtained and used as potential pathogenic events and biomarkers for the clinical course of MS. Finally, we review recently published and ongoing clinical trials in MS patients regarding the immunomodulatory properties exerted by some microorganisms. Because MS is a complex disease with a large variety of associated environmental risk factors, we suggest that current treatments combined with strategies that modulate the commensal microbiota would constitute a broader immunotherapeutic approach and improve the clinical outcome for MS patients.  相似文献   
7.
The therapeutic effects of wheel running (WR) during abstinence on reinstatement of ethanol seeking behaviors in rats that self-administered ethanol only (ethanol drinking, ED) or ED with concurrent chronic intermittent ethanol vapor experience (CIE-ED) were investigated. Neuronal activation as well as oligodendroglial and neuroinflammatory factors were measured in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) tissue to determine cellular correlates associated with enhanced ethanol seeking. CIE-ED rats demonstrated escalated and unregulated intake of ethanol and maintained higher drinking than ED rats during abstinence. CIE-ED rats were more resistant to extinction from ethanol self-administration, however, demonstrated similar ethanol seeking triggered by ethanol contextual cues compared to ED rats. Enhanced seeking was associated with reduced neuronal activation, and increased number of myelinating oligodendrocyte progenitors and PECAM-1 expression in the mPFC, indicating enhanced oligodendroglial and neuroinflammatory response during abstinence. WR during abstinence enhanced self-administration in ED rats, indicating a deprivation effect. WR reduced reinstatement of ethanol seeking in CIE-ED and ED rats, indicating protection against relapse. The reduced ethanol seeking was associated with enhanced neuronal activation, reduced number of myelinating oligodendrocyte progenitors, and reduced PECAM-1 expression. The current findings demonstrate a protective role of WR during abstinence in reducing ethanol seeking triggered by ethanol contextual cues and establish a role for oligodendroglia-neuroinflammatory response in ethanol seeking. Taken together, enhanced oligodendroglia-neuroinflammatory response during abstinence may contribute to brain trauma in chronic alcohol drinking subjects and be a risk factor for enhanced propensity for alcohol relapse.  相似文献   
8.
Over several decades, studies sought potential markers to diagnose and to predict the clinical course of central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating disorders, especially in multiple sclerosis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders. Reliable biomarkers would ensure correct diagnoses, determine future disease evolvements, stratify patients for appropriate treatments and monitor disease activity and treatment effects – in summary, meet the longing for personalized medicine in these diseases. Out of a plethora of potential biomarker candidates antibodies have turned (again) into the scientific focus, due to pivotal immunological and neuropathological findings in the past 20 years. A major breakthrough and stimulus for further research was the identification of anti‐aquaporin‐4 antibodies in neuromyelitis optica. Various other myelin and non‐myelin antigens were investigated in detail for diagnostic and prognostic purposes, such as antibodies to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein or to the potassium channel KIR4.1. Further, the use of biopharmaceutical treatments in multiple sclerosis led to intense research activities to identify anti‐treatment neutralizing antibodies and their clinical consequences. This review briefly summarizes the current knowledge on antibodies in the diagnosis, prognosis, disease and treatment monitoring of CNS demyelinating disorders.  相似文献   
9.
We report the construction of a fusion protein comprising the extracellular domain of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) and a truncated version of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A (ETA′). The chimeric immunotoxin targeted MOG-reactive B-lymphocytes by binding selectively to the appropriate receptors, leading to internalization and apoptosis of the target cells. The functionality of the immunotoxin was tested on a MOG-sensitive murine hybridoma cell line and ex vivo on freshly isolated splenocytes from transgenic IgHMOG mice. These data demonstrate, for the first time, the specific cytotoxicity of a MOG-containing recombinant immunotoxin expressed in bacteria towards MOG-reactive B-lymphocytes.  相似文献   
10.
Multiple sclerosis is a demyelinating disease which is presumed to be a consequence of infiltrating lymphocytes autoreactive to myelin proteins. This is substantiated by several lines of clinical evidence and supported by correlative studies in preclinical models. The development of new therapeutics for MS has been guided by this perspective; however, the pathogenesis of MS has proven to be quite complex as observations exist which question the role of autoreactive lymphocytes in the etiology of MS. In addition the current immunomodulatory therapeutics do not prevent most patients from progressing into more serious forms of the disease. The development of truly transformational therapeutics for MS will likely require a broad assault that expands beyond the concept of MS being an autoimmune disease.  相似文献   
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