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1.
Serving as one of our primary environmental inputs, vision is the most sophisticated sensory system in humans. Here, we present recent findings derived from energetics, genetics and physiology that provide a more advanced understanding of color perception in mammals. Energetics of cistrans isomerization of 11-cis-retinal accounts for color perception in the narrow region of the electromagnetic spectrum and how human eyes can absorb light in the near infrared (IR) range. Structural homology models of visual pigments reveal complex interactions of the protein moieties with the light sensitive chromophore 11-cis-retinal and that certain color blinding mutations impair secondary structural elements of these G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Finally, we identify unsolved critical aspects of color tuning that require future investigation.  相似文献   
2.
Lewy pathology has been described in neurons of the enteric nervous system in nearly all Parkinson's disease (PD) patients at autopsy. The enteric nervous system not only contains a variety of functionally distinct enteric neurons but also harbors a prominent component of glial cells, the so‐called enteric glial cells, which, like astrocytes of the central nervous system, contribute to support, protect, and maintain the neural network. A growing body of evidence supports a role for enteric glial cells in the pathophysiology of gastrointestinal disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease and chronic constipation. We have recently shown that enteric glial cell dysfunction occurs in PD. In the present review, we discuss the possible implications of enteric glia in PD‐related gut dysfunction as well as in disease initiation and development. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society  相似文献   
3.
Epigenetic mechanisms participate in melanoma development and progression. The effect of histone modifications and their catalysing enzymes over euchromatic promoter DNA methylation in melanoma remains unclear. This study investigated the potential association of p16INK4A promoter methylation with histone methyltransferase SETDB1 expression in Greek patients with sporadic melanoma and their correlation with clinicopathological characteristics. Promoter methylation was detected by methylation‐specific PCR in 100 peripheral blood samples and 58 melanoma tissues from the same patients. Cell proliferation (Ki‐67 index), p16INK4A and SETDB1 expression were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. High‐frequency promoter methylation (25.86%) was observed in tissue samples and correlated with increased cell proliferation (= 0.0514). p16INK4A promoter methylation was higher in vertical growth‐phase (60%) melanomas than in radial (40%, = 0.063) and those displaying epidermal involvement (= 0.046). Importantly, p16INK4A methylation correlated with increased melanoma thickness according to Breslow index (= 0.0495) and marginally with increased Clark level (I/II vs III/IV/V, = 0.070). Low (1–30%) p16INK4A expression was detected at the majority (19 of 54) of melanoma cases (35.19%), being marginally correlated with tumor lymphocytic infiltration (= 0.078). SETDB1 nuclear immunoreactivity was observed in 47 of 57 (82.46%) cases, whereas 27 of 57 (47.37%) showed cytoplasmic immunoexpression. Cytoplasmic SETDB1 expression correlated with higher frequency of p16INK4A methylation and p16INK4A expression (= 0.033, = 0.011, respectively). Increased nuclear SETDB1 levels were associated with higher mitotic count (0–5/mm2 vs >5/mm2, = 0.0869), advanced Clark level (III‐V, = 0.0380), epidermal involvement (= 0.0331) and the non‐chronic sun exposure‐associated melanoma type (= 0.0664). Our data demonstrate for the first time the association of histone methyltransferase SETDB1 with frequent methylation of the euchromatic p16INK4A promoter and several prognostic parameters in melanomas.  相似文献   
4.
Ectopic overexpression of melatonin biosynthetic genes of animal origin has been used to generate melatonin‐rich transgenic plants to examine the functional roles of melatonin in plants. However, the subcellular localization of these proteins expressed in the transgenic plants remains unknown. We studied the localization of sheep (Ovis aries) serotonin N‐acetyltransferase (OaSNAT) and a translational fusion of a rice SNAT transit peptide to OaSNAT (TS:OaSNAT) in plants. Laser confocal microscopy analysis revealed that both OaSNAT and TS:OaSNAT proteins were localized to the cytoplasm even with the addition of the transit sequence to OaSNAT. Transgenic rice plants overexpressing the TS:OaSNAT fusion transgene exhibited high SNAT enzyme activity relative to untransformed wild‐type plants, but lower activity than transgenic rice plants expressing the wild‐type OaSNAT gene. Melatonin levels in both types of transgenic rice plant corresponded well with SNAT enzyme activity levels. The TS:OaSNAT transgenic lines exhibited increased seminal root growth relative to wild‐type plants, but less than in the OaSNAT transgenic lines, confirming that melatonin promotes root growth. Seed‐specific OaSNAT expression under the control of a rice prolamin promoter did not confer high levels of melatonin production in transgenic rice seeds compared with seeds from transgenic plants expressing OaSNAT under the control of the constitutive maize ubiquitin promoter.  相似文献   
5.
Aberrant DNA methylation of promoter region CpG islands may serve as an alternative mechanism to genetic defects in the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) in human malignancies. The aim of this study was to examine the promoter methylation status of the PTEN TSG and its association with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) carcinogenesis in a Chinese Kazakh population, which is known to have a relatively high ESCC incidence and mortality. The methylation status of the PTEN promoter region was determined in patients with ESCC (n = 95) and healthy individuals (n = 65) using highly sensitive Sequenom Epityper assays. The methylation level of the PTEN gene was significantly higher in patients with ESCC than in healthy controls. The median methylation level was 10.0% (interquartile range [IQR]: 7.0–11.0%) in patients with ESCC and 6.0% in controls (IQR: 4.0–9.0%; P = 0.001). PTEN methylation levels were higher in male patients with ESCC than in male controls, whereas a trend toward significance was observed between female patients with ESCC and female controls (P = 0.005 and P = 0.086, respectively). The PTEN methylation level was associated with histopathological grade and lymph node metastasis in patients with ESCC (P = 0.002 and P = 0.009, respectively). To our knowledge, this is the first report to show the presence of PTEN promoter CpG hypermethylation in ESCC and its association with tumor metastasis.  相似文献   
6.
The origins of autoimmunity are not yet understood despite significant advances in immunology. The trafficking of maternal cells to the offspring represents the very first immunological event in foetal life and is reinforced during lactation. The persistence of maternal cells in offspring's tissues and circulation has been associated with several autoimmune disorders. However a direct causal effect has never been demonstrated. Maternal T cells specifically targeting foetal insulin producing cells have been shown to generate islet inflammation without directly participating in this process. Our objective was to evaluate if alloreactive maternal cells could directly trigger a graft-versus host like reaction or indirectly influence the development of the offspring's regulatory T cells favouring autoimmunity. We adopted a breeding strategy comparing genetically identical offspring from either strongly alloreactive transgenic mothers compared to immunodeficient mothers. We detected maternal alloreactive T cells in the offspring and early signs of inflammation in small intestine of 6 weeks old offspring. Interestingly, CD4+ Foxp3+ regulatory T cell frequency was diminished in mesenteric lymph nodes from eight months old offspring born of alloreactive mothers compared to offspring of immunodeficient mothers. Our study favours a hypothesis where highly alloreactive maternal cell microchimerism indirectly predisposes offspring to autoimmunity.  相似文献   
7.
Meningiomas are common central nervous system tumors. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines three grades, predictive of the risk of recurrence. These tumors can relapse frequently and sometimes undergo malignant transformation. Maintenance of telomere length is a key process in malignant progression, and mutations in TERT promoter have recently been identified in various types of cancer. We sequenced the TERT promoter in 85 meningiomas from 73 patients. We found a high incidence of TERT promoter mutations in patients with meningiomas undergoing malignant histological progression (28%, n = 5/18 patients). In this subset of patients with histological progression, TERT promoter mutations were found in both the lowest and the highest grade tumors, and in both NF2‐mutated and nonmutated samples. In contrast, one mutation was identified in 35 meningiomas without recurrence or progression, belonging to various histological grades. This sample was an aggressive meningioma in a patient who died shortly after surgery. Interestingly, tumors showing relapse without histological progression were not mutated for TERT promoter (n = 20). Finally, TERT promoter mutations were associated with a marked increase in TERT expression. Thus, TERT promoter mutations are pivotal genetic alterations involved in malignant progression of meningiomas and could be used as a biomarker to identify meningiomas at risk of malignant transformation.  相似文献   
8.
Background Herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase phosphorylates ganciclovir to ganciclovir monophosphate,which is then converted to ganciclovir triphosphate by endogenous cellular nucleoside kinases.The ganciclovir triphosphate acts as a DNA chain terminator due to the lack of a functional 3'-OH group and terminates the process of DNA replication,hence leading to cell apoptosis.At present,HSVtk gene usually acts as suicide gene to kill tumor cells.The aim of this study was to investigate the selective cytotoxicity of the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase/ganciclovir (HSVtK/GCV) suicide gene system controlled by the α-fetoprotein (AFP) promoter on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells in vitro.Methods pAFP-HSVtk-IRES2-EGFP recombinant plasmid vectors driven by the AFP promoter were constructed.HL-7702 liver cells,HUH-7 HCC,and HepG2 HCC were transfected with the recombinant plasmids.HSVtK gene expression was detected using Western blotting analysis.HepG2 cells line stably expressing HSVtk gene was selected by G418 reagent.The cytotoxicity of HSVtK/GCV suicide gene system on hepatoma cells was measured by CCK-8 reagents when different doses of ganciclovir were added.Results Plasmid pAFP-TK-IRES2-EGFP-expressed HSVtk gene was constructed successfully.HSVtk gene expression level was significantly higher in AFP-positive hepatoma cells than in AFP-negative liver cells.After G418 selection,a HepG2 cells line stably expressing HSVtk gene was acquired.With the increase of the dose of ganciclovir the optical density at 450 nm of HepG2 cells stably expressing HSVtk gene gradually decreased (P <0.05).Conclusion The HSVtK gene-specific expression in hepatoma cells as well as the cytotoxicity of the suicide gene system in HepG2 cells provided the basis for the targeted gene therapy of HCC.  相似文献   
9.
10.
Nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) is the integrative sensory relay of autonomic functions in the brainstem. To explore the nonneuronal cellular basis of central chemosensitivity during the first 24 hr of ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia (VHA), we have investigated glial activation markers in the NTS. Conscious mice (C57/BL6) were placed in a hermetic hypoxia chamber containing a plethysmograph to record ventilation. After 4 days of habituation to the normoxic environment, mice were subjected to physiological hypoxia (10% O2) for 1, 6, or 24 hr. To dissociate interactions between microglia and astrocytes, another group received daily minocycline, a microglia activation blocker. By immunochemical localization of astrocytes (GFAP), activated microglia (Cd11b), and total microglia (Iba‐1), we identified an oxygen‐sensing glial layer in the NTS, in which astrocytes are first activated after 1–6 hr of hypoxia, followed by microglia after 6–24 hr of hypoxia. Minocycline administration suppressed microglial activation and decreased astrocyte activation at 6 hr and VHA at 24 hr of hypoxia. These results suggest that astrocytes contribute to the neuronal response during the first hour of hypoxia, whereas microglial cells, via cross‐talk with astrocytes, are involved in the VHA during the first 24 hr of acclimatization. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.  相似文献   
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