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1.
Discharge patterns of human genioglossus motor units during sleep onset   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Multiunit electromyogram recordings of genioglossus have demonstrated an abrupt reduction in the muscle's activity at sleep onset. Recent evidence from single motor unit recordings indicates that the human genioglossus muscle consists of motor units with a variety of discharge patterns. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of sleep onset on the activity of individual motor units as a function of their particular discharge pattern. DESIGN: Genioglossus activity was assessed using intramuscular fine-wire electrodes via a percutaneous approach. Sleep onsets (alpha-to-theta transitions) were identified and the genioglossus electromyogram recordings analyzed for single motor unit activity. SETTING: Sleep research laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Sleep and respiratory data were collected in 8 healthy subjects (6 men). MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: One hundred twenty-seven motor units were identified: 23% inspiratory phasic, 45% inspiratory tonic, 4% expiratory phasic, 9% expiratory tonic, 16% tonic, and 3% other. Approximately 50% of inspiratory units (phasic and tonic) ceased activity entirely at sleep onset, whereas those inspiratory units that continued to be active showed a reduction in the proportion of each breath over which they were active. However, the rate of discharge of inspiratory units during the period they did fire was not altered. In contrast, tonic and expiratory units were unaffected by sleep onset, maintaining their discharge pattern over the alpha-to-theta transition. CONCLUSIONS: Central control of inspiratory motoneuron output differs from that of tonic and expiratory units during sleep onset, suggesting that the maintenance of airway patency during sleep may become more reliant on the stiffening properties of tonic and expiratory modulated motor units.  相似文献
2.
We previously showed that rostral fluid displacement by lower body positive pressure (LBPP) narrows the upper airway (UA) and increases UA resistance, but effects on UA collapsibility remained unknown. To test if LBPP increases UA collapsibility, 13 healthy men were randomized into a control or LBPP arm then crossed over into the other arm with a 30-min washout in between. LBPP was applied by inflating anti-shock trousers wrapped around both legs to 40 mmHg. UA collapsibility was assessed by determining UA critical closing pressure (P crit) during application of different negative airway pressures. P crit and leg fluid volume were measured at baseline and after 5 min during both periods. LBPP caused a significant increase in P crit associated with a reduction in leg fluid volume. We conclude that rostral fluid displacement by LBPP increases UA collapsibility in healthy men, suggesting that fluid shift into the neck could increase UA collapsibility during sleep and thereby predispose patients with fluid overload states to obstructive sleep apnea.  相似文献
3.
目的 研究伴鼻腔结构异常的OSAHS患者经鼻腔结构矫正手术后,气道结构形态的改变对患者整个上气道流场分布以及软腭运动姿态的影响。方法 基于患者手术前后CT影像学数据,建立上气道及软腭三维有限元模型,采用流固耦合的方法模拟手术前后上气道流场特性及软腭的运动情况。结果 手术矫正了异常的鼻腔结构形态,鼻腔及整个上气道阻力明显下降。术后软腭的肥厚水肿明显缓解,其游离缘的运动幅度减小。软腭运动幅度随弹性模量的减小而增大。术后的模拟结果与文献报道的正常人实验与模拟结果接近。结论 鼻腔结构矫正手术改变了上气道结构,影响了气流流场的分布和软腭的运动姿态;不同病理生理状态下,软腭弹性模量的变化对其运动姿态有影响。  相似文献
4.
—The incidence of sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBDs) associated with hemoglobin desaturation was determined by nocturnal polygraphic evaluations in 26 healthy men, aged 55–70 years. Sixteen subjects (62%) had abnormal rates of at least 12 episodes per hour of sleep: 8 had occlusive, and 8 had central apnea or hypopnea. During waking ten of 16 SRBD subjects and only one subject without SRBDs exhibited either an elevated nasopharyngeal airway resistance (n=4) or a reduced ventilatory response to hypercapnia (n=4) and/or hypoxia (n=3). However, these abnormalities were not related to the type or severity of SRBDs, and 6 subjects with SRBDs demonstrated no respiratory defect. We conclude that SRBDs have a very high incidence in older males and are not usually secondary to pulmonary cardiac, neurological, or behavioral disorders. Additionally, we hypothesize that abnormalities in ventilatory control or upper airway resistance contribute to SRBDs, but depression of brain stem reticular formation activity during sleep plays a primary role in these disorders. Factors related to both aging and SRBDs are reviewed. These include reduced chemoreceptor responses, altered steroid hormone metabolism, and use and metabolism of hypnotic drugs and alcohol.  相似文献
5.
—The incidence of sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBDs) associated with hemoglobin desaturation was determined by nocturnal polygraphic evaluations in 26 healthy men, aged 55–70 years. Sixteen subjects (62%) had abnormal rates of at least 12 episodes per hour of sleep: 8 had occlusive, and 8 had central apnea or hypopnea. During waking ten of 16 SRBD subjects and only one subject without SRBDs exhibited either an elevated nasopharyngeal airway resistance (n=4) or a reduced ventilatory response to hypercapnia (n=4) and/or hypoxia (n=3). However, these abnormalities were not related to the type or severity of SRBDs, and 6 subjects with SRBDs demonstrated no respiratory defect. We conclude that SRBDs have a very high incidence in older males and are not usually secondary to pulmonary cardiac, neurological, or behavioral disorders. Additionally, we hypothesize that abnormalities in ventilatory control or upper airway resistance contribute to SRBDs, but depression of brain stem reticular formation activity during sleep plays a primary role in these disorders. Factors related to both aging and SRBDs are reviewed. These include reduced chemoreceptor responses, altered steroid hormone metabolism, and use and metabolism of hypnotic drugs and alcohol.  相似文献
6.
Alcohol as well as anesthetic and sedative agents depress the respiratory activity of the hypoglossal-genioglossal system more than that of the phrenic-diaphragmatic system. The mechanisms for this selective depression remain unclear. To evaluate the contribution of pathways traversing the spinal cord, the response of phrenic and hypoglossal nerve activities to 0.5% halothane was obtained in decerebrate cats before and after transection of the spinal cord at T1 and again following transection at C1. Halothane produced a much greater decrease in hypoglossal than phrenic activity before and after spinal cord section at T1. Following cord section at C1, which eliminates phrenic activity, 0.5% halothane still priduced a marked depression of hypoglossal activity. Therefore, the selective depression of the hypoglossal-genioglossal system does not depend on spinal mechanisms and appears to be mediated in the brain stem.  相似文献
7.
The effects of upper airway (UA) cool air and CO2 on breathing and on laryngeal and supraglottic resistances were studied in anaesthetised rats breathing spontaneously through a tracheostomy. Warm, humidified air containing 0, 5 and 9–10% CO2 and cool, room-humidity air were delivered at constant flow to either the isolated larynx to exit through a pharyngotomy or to the supraglottic UA to exit through the mouth and/or nose (nose open or sealed). Spontaneous tracheal airflow and UA airflows, temperatures and pressures were recorded. CO2 had no effect on breathing but caused a slight increase in laryngeal resistance which was abolished by cutting the superior laryngeal nerves (SLN). Cool air caused a decrease in respiratory frequency and/or peak inspiratory flow when applied to the isolated larynx or to the supraglottic airway with the nose closed. These effects were abolished by SLN section. With the nose open, the ventilatory inhibition was not abolished by SLN section. Cool air also caused substantial decreases in laryngeal and supraglottic resistances which were attenuated by SLN section and which persisted following recurrent laryngeal nerve section. In conclusion, whilst UA cooling inhibits breathing and decreases UA resistances, UA CO2 has minimal effects.  相似文献
8.
The acoustie reflection method provides a noninvasive way to determine the airway geometry. Based on a discrete upper airway model, an inverse scheme is developed to infer the upper airway area as a function of distance. We incorporate this scheme into a system that can generate multiple acoustic pulses to sample the upper airway geometry at a maximum frequency of 30 Hz, making possible determination of the airway area-distance relation as a function of time. Therefore, we can monitor the dynamic behavior of the upper airway during breathing. To validate the approach, we visualized vocal cord movements in three normal subjects via laryngoscopy; simultaneously acoustic measurements were made at 10 Hz. Video images of vocal cord movement were recorded and digitized. We compared the laryngeal area from analysis of the video images with the acoustic assessment at the level of the glottis. Linear regression analysis shows that the correlation coefficients are between 0.85 and 0.9 for all three subjects. We conclude that the acoustic reflection method is a useful tool for measuring vocal cord movement without the use of laryngoscopy, and the approach promises to be a useful one to measure the movement of the whole upper airway. This paper also discusses the limitations inherent in the algorithm and some useful procedures to ensure accurate and reliable area computation during implemention.  相似文献
9.
SUMMARY  Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a leading cause of death among middle-aged men. In the same age group the spectrum of upper airway obstruction from habitual snoring to obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is frequent. In several studies snoring was found to be an important risk factor for ischaemic heart disease. The prevalence of OSAS in patients with CHD, profile of risk factors and ventricular arrhythmias was determined in a prospective manner in 78 patients with stenosis of one or more coronary arteries at coronary arterography. OSAS was found in 27 patients (34.6%). Mean respiratory disturbance index (RDI) was 23.9. RDI increased with higher age. No significant differences in both groups could be found in ventricular arrhythmias, left ventricular ejection fraction and risk factors, except hyperuricaemia and adiposity. OSAS is frequent in patients with CHD and may be an additional risk factor besides the known coronary risk factors. Patients with the combination of CHD and OSAS have to be regarded as a group at particular risk because of several interactions between OSAS and coronary haemodynamics. Furthermore the microstructure of sleep in patients with nocturnal myocardial ischaemia is disturbed.  相似文献
10.
SUMMARY  Current evidence suggests that elevations in blood pressure during obstructive apnoeic episodes increase pharyngeal collapsibility and the severity of obstructive sleep apnoea.  相似文献
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