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1.
AIM: To assess the expression and coexpression of a range of different biomarkers that have been used to define breast carcinomas with a basal phenotype (BP) and their relationship with prognosis in an attempt to refine the definition of BP and to evaluate the reliability of using a single biomarker to identify these tumours. METHODS AND RESULTS: The expression pattern of basal cytokeratins (CK5/6 and CK14), oestrogen, progesterone and androgen receptors, epidermal growth factor receptor, HER2, BRCA1, P-cadherin and myoepithelial markers (smooth muscle actin and p63) were studied in a well-characterized series of invasive breast carcinoma (1872 cases) with long-term follow-up using immunohistochemistry and tissue microarray. Although the additional markers were associated with basal CK expression, they did not serve to improve recognition of cases with differing outcome when compared with basal CKs alone and, if used to define cases, reduced considerably the proportion of cases allocated to this poor prognostic type of breast cancer. CONCLUSION: BP can be defined based on the expression of basal CKs regardless of the expression of other markers.  相似文献
2.
Cytokine IL-6 and IL-10 as Biomarkers in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus   总被引:11,自引:0,他引:11  
There is a great deal of interest in the identification of biomarkers that are closely associated with disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), but few biomarkers have been validated. Cytokines play an important role in the pathogenesis of SLE. Therefore, we evaluated the levels of cytokines and their possible association with disease activity. In the present study, we found that the SLE patients had higher IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, and IFN-γ levels, but lower IL-2, than normal controls. Serum IL-6 level was significantly elevated in active SLE patients and correlated with the SLE activity index (SLEDAI), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Serum IL-10 level was also significantly elevated in active SLE patients and revealed positive correlation with SLEDAI and anti-double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) titer and negative correlation with C3, C4, and lymphocyte counts. No significant differences in the levels of cytokines were observed between SLE patients with nephritis and those without nephritis. These data suggest that IL-6 and IL-10 may be a useful biomarker for disease activity in SLE.  相似文献
3.
Tubular kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) in human renal disease   总被引:7,自引:0,他引:7  
KIM‐1, a transmembrane tubular protein with unknown function, is undetectable in normal kidneys, but is markedly induced in experimental renal injury. The KIM‐1 ectodomain is cleaved, detectable in urine, and reflects renal damage. KIM‐1 expression in human renal biopsies and its correlation with urinary KIM‐1 (uKIM‐1) is unknown. In biopsies from various renal diseases (n = 102) and controls (n = 7), the fraction of KIM‐1 positive tubules and different renal damage parameters were scored. Double labelling was performed for KIM‐1 with macrophages (MØ), α‐smooth muscle actin (α‐SMA), proximal (aquaporin‐1) and distal (E‐cadherin) tubular markers and a dedifferentiation marker (vimentin). uKIM‐1 at the time of biopsy (n = 53) was measured by ELISA. Renal KIM‐1 was significantly increased in all diseases versus controls (p < 0.05), except minimal change. KIM‐1 was primarily expressed at the luminal side of dedifferentiated proximal tubules, in areas with fibrosis (α‐SMA) and inflammation (MØ). Independent of the disease, renal KIM‐1 correlated positively with renal damage, negatively with renal function, but not with proteinuria. uKIM‐1 was increased in renal patients versus controls (p < 0.001), including minimal change, and correlated positively with tissue KIM‐1 and MØ, negatively with renal function, but not with proteinuria. In conclusion, KIM‐1 is upregulated in renal disease and is associated with renal fibrosis and inflammation. uKIM‐1 is also associated with inflammation and renal function, and reflects tissue KIM‐1, indicating that it can be used as a non‐invasive biomarker in renal disease. Copyright © 2007 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献
4.
It is of great clinical value to identify subjects at a high risk of developing AD. We previously found that the amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) tracer PIB showed a robust difference in retention in the brain between AD patients and healthy controls (HC). Twenty-one patients diagnosed with MCI (mean age 63.3 ± 7.8 (S.D.) years) underwent PET studies with 11C-PIB, and 18F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose (FDG) to measure cerebral glucose metabolism, as well as assessment of cognitive function and CSF sampling. Reference group data from 27 AD patients and 6 healthy controls, respectively, were used for comparison. The mean cortical PIB retention for the MCI patients was intermediate compared to HC and AD. Seven MCI patients that later at clinical follow-up converted to AD (8.1 ± 6.0 (S.D.) months) showed significant higher PIB retention compared to non-converting MCI patients and HC, respectively (ps < 0.01). The PIB retention in MCI converters was comparable to AD patients (p > 0.01). Correlations were observed in the MCI patients between PIB retention and CSF Aβ1-42, total Tau and episodic memory, respectively.  相似文献
5.
Circulating endothelial cells (CEC) are currently proposed as a potential biomarker for measuring the impact of anti-angiogenic treatments in cancer. However, the lack of consensus on the appropriate method of CEC measurement has led to conflicting data in cancer patients. A validated assay adapted for evaluating the clinical utility of CEC in large cohorts of patients undergoing anti-angiogenic treatments is needed. We developed a four-color flow cytometric assay to measure CEC as CD31(+), CD146(+), CD45(-), 7-amino-actinomycin-D (7AAD)(-) events in whole blood. The distinctive features of the assay are: (1) staining of 1 ml whole blood, (2) use of a whole blood IgPE control to measure accurately background noise, (3) accumulation of a large number of events (almost 5 10(6)) to ensure statistical analysis, and (4) use of 10 microm fluorescent microbeads to evaluate the event size. Assay reproducibility was determined in duplicate aliquots of samples drawn from 20 metastatic cancer patients. Assay linearity was tested by spiking whole blood with low numbers of HUVEC. Five-color flow cytometric experiments with CD144 were performed to confirm the endothelial origin of the cells. CEC were measured in 20 healthy individuals and 125 patients with metastatic cancer. Reproducibility was good between duplicate aliquots (r(2)=0.948, mean difference between duplicates of 0.86 CEC/ml). Detected HUVEC correlated with spiked HUVEC (r(2)=0.916, mean recovery of 100.3%). Co-staining of CD31, CD146 and CD144 confirmed the endothelial nature of cells identified as CEC. Median CEC levels were 6.5/ml (range, 0-15) in healthy individuals and 15.0/ml (range, 0-179) in patients with metastatic carcinoma (p<0.001). The assay proposed here allows reproducible and sensitive measurement of CEC by flow cytometry and could help evaluate CEC as biomarkers of anti-angiogenic therapies in large cohorts of patients.  相似文献
6.
Protein microarrays are of increasing importance for high-throughput screening of fresh tissues. In our study, protein microarrays were generated by printing antibodies onto membranes to characterize protein profiles expressed by head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs). Cellular proteomes of 30 matched normal squamous epithelial cells and carcinoma specimens were analyzed after tissue microdissection using microarrays composed of 83 different antibodies. As controls, Western blot analysis and tissue microarrays (TMAs) containing 98 HNSCC specimens were used. Of the 83 proteins examined, 14 showed differential expression between HNSCCs and normal epithelium. The protein microarray approach revealed an upregulation of 8 proteins and a downregulation of 6 proteins. Bag-1, Cox-2, Hsp-70, Stat3, pescadillo, MMP-7 (matrilysin), IGF-2, and cyclin D1 were identified to be significantly upregulated, whereas suppressor of cytokine signaling 1, thrombospondin, TGF-beta1, Jun, Fos, and Fra-2 were downregulated. The differential expression of these proteins was confirmed using Western blot and TMA. Upon correlation of differentially regulated proteins with the clinicopathologic data of our patients, MMP-7 (matrilysin) was found to be associated with survival in univariate, but not multivariate, analysis. These data indicate that our protein arrays provide protein information in a systematic, reproducible, and also high-throughput fashion.  相似文献
7.
急性肾损伤相关生物标志物的研究进展   总被引:3,自引:2,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
急性肾损伤(acute kidney injury,AKI)既往被称为急性肾衰竭(acute renal failure,ARF),是一种由不同病因所致、具有不同临床表现并以肾小球滤过率迅速下降为主要特点的临床综合征,多见于多器官功能衰竭、败血症等严重疾病,也常见于各类肾脏疾病的不同阶段.  相似文献
8.
We report the successful validation of a combined gene expression profiling and tissue microarray approach to papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) biomarker identification. Our ultimate goal is the identification of protein biomarkers that can be effectively used in immunocytochemical assays applied to thyroid fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) samples. To that end, we designed our approach to prioritize molecules that were minimally expressed in normal thyroid and highly expressed in PTC. We first generated gene expression profiles from 11 normal thyroid tissue samples and 9 samples of classic PTC. The results were segregated to rank most highly those molecules not expressed in normal thyroid and up-regulated at least 6-fold in PTC. From this list, we chose 2 molecules (P-cadherin and Bax) for immunohistochemical analysis for which commercial antibodies were available. These were compared with 2 other molecules that have been previously studied in thyroid cancer (cytokeratin-19 and galectin-3). For immunohistochemistry, a tissue microarray was generated that contained the following tissues: classic PTC (n = 20), follicular variant of PTC (n = 9), normal thyroid (n = 19), Hashimoto thyroiditis (n = 11), follicular adenoma (n = 15), and follicular carcinoma (n = 14). Immunohistochemical staining was scored and compared with the gene expression profiling. As anticipated, cytokeratin-19 and galectin-3 were highly expressed in PTC and less expressed in other tissues. Bax and P-cadherin were also expressed in PTC, but to a lower level than cytokeratin-19 and galectin-3; however, Bax and P-cadherin demonstrated virtually no staining of normal thyroid, unlike cytokeratin-19 and galectin-3. These results validate our approach for PTC biomarker discovery and identify several candidate biomarkers for further development.  相似文献
9.
10.
Heat shock proteins (Hsps) have been regarded as cytoprotectants that protect brain cells from damage encountered following cerebral ischemia or during the progression of neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we assessed the plasma Hsp70 and Hsp27 levels in not cognitively impaired (NCI) subjects and in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), vascular mild cognitive impairment (VMCI), and probable Alzheimer's disease (AD). Comparison of the plasma Hsp70 and Hsp27 levels of the 4 groups revealed that only the plasma Hsp70 level of VMCI patients (14.11 ng/ml) was significantly higher than that of NCI subjects (11.32 ng/ml), MCI patients (10.16 ng/ml), and patients with probable AD (10.16 ng/ml) after adjustment of age, sex, and education (F=4.231, d.f.=3, p=0.008). Furthermore, there was no difference in plasma Hsp27 levels among the 4 groups. These findings suggest that the plasma Hsp70 level may be related to vascular factors or inflammation.  相似文献
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