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1.
中国力学虚拟人   总被引:12,自引:0,他引:12  
“中国力学虚拟人”是国家自然科学基金重点项目。它是一个人体骨肌系统参数化几何模型,通过输入人体参数,可以转换为具体研究对象的骨肌系统模型;通过运动捕捉系统,可以将测量得到的人体运动转换为骨肌系统模型的运动;通过运动、动力学分析和肌肉力计算,可以得到一个行为过程中的关节力和肌肉力;它同时是人体全身骨肌系统的有限元模型,可以做全身骨骼或局部骨骼的有限元分析。该项目将开发一个大型软件,支撑上述计算工作。它将在医学、医疗器械设计、人机工程学、体育与艺术科学、人身事故分析等广泛领域获得应用。骨肌系统建模的基本参数取自中国可视化人的研究成果。  相似文献
2.
虚拟人体的研究现状与进展   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6  
综述了目前国际上有关虚拟人体在多个层面上的研究现状.首先以心脏虚拟模型为例,介绍了从细胞到器官功能系统的虚拟模型建立方法和研究现状,然后简要介绍了整个虚拟人体计划的研究进展和相关的标准、工具以及数据库的发展状况,讨论了虚拟人体在医疗诊断、医疗器械设计、虚拟手术及医学教育与训练等方面的应用.最后总结了目前虚拟人体研究领域所面临的挑战,并对其军事应用意义进行了探讨.  相似文献
3.
将生理学、工程分析和计算机三维图像技术结合起来打开了创造"虚拟人"的大门。本文报道了一种具有广泛应用基础且功能齐全的人类肌肉骨骼系统的生理生物力学仿真技术。该仿真技术从结构水平、静态和动态模型的可视化结果上,并综合利用生物力学分析及图形化建模的专业知识来研究骨骼关节和软组织的力学性能,可与人体组织符合的模型包括假体植入物、内固定系统、功能康复锻炼装置,以及一个功能强大的计算平台联合在一起形成一个可在不同边界及加载条件下作静态、动态、动力学、应力及应变分析的应用软件系统及数据库—简称为VIMS(Virtua  相似文献
4.
The Coronary Vasculature and its Reconstruction   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
Recently, we have developed several new innovations in the morphometry of vascular trees. These innovations have been used to study the anatomy of the coronary circulation in the pig and have yielded a complete set of morphometric data on the entire coronary vasculature. Since, the innovations are applicable to any organ that has a tree-like vasculature, their utility in describing the quantitative anatomy of intraorgan vasculature is evident. These advancements in morphometry along with the automation of vascular tree reconstruction, data analysis, and hemodynamic applications should make the data base on intraorgan vasculature more abundant and more useful. The morphometric data will contribute to the Circulatory Network Physiome that will serve as an anatomical basis for the Physiome Project. This article covers several topics: (1) intraorgan vascular trees in terms of their anatomy, mechanical properties, physiological behavior, and adaptation, (2) reconstruction of the coronary vasculature, and (3) some of the shortcomings of the present morphometric data base and some proposed remedies. Finally, a discussion of the constitution of the circulatory network physiome in terms of the available morphometric data on intraorgan vasculature will be presented. © 2000 Biomedical Engineering Society. PAC00: 8719Uv, 8719Rr  相似文献
5.
Integration from proteins to organs: the IUPS Physiome Project   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
The IUPS Physiome Project is an internationally collaborative open source project intended to provide a public domain framework for computational physiology, including the development of modeling standards, computational tools and web-accessible databases of models of structure and function at all spatial scales and across all organ systems. Here, we illustrate the application of this multi-scale modeling approach to three organ systems: the heart, the lungs and the musculo-skeletal system, and in each case we show how the organ level models incorporate tissue and cell-level physiology. Although the computational physiology framework presented here does not yet incorporate models of ageing processes, the model-based approach is certainly capable of describing ageing and disease-related processes both via parameter changes within the models of normal physiological processes and via models of additional processes added to the framework.  相似文献
6.
Summary The authors described in this report the mode of attachments of muscles along the medial border of the scapula, as seen in sixty adult Indians. The levator scapulae, rhomboideus major and minor muscles comprise of double folds at the scapular end. The posterior folds of the levator scapulae and the rhomboideus minor muscles were attached to the dorsal surface of the medial border of the bone opposite the supraspinous fossa and the root of the spine respectively, while their anterior flaps gained attachment on the costal surface of the border at the level of the root of the scapular spine. The latter muscle reached much lower than the former. The rhomboideus major muscle was attached on the medial border of the scapula opposite the infraspinous fossa and could be traced to the dorsal surface of the bone just above the inferior angle. All the three muscles overlapped the costal surface of the serratus anterior fascia for about three centimeters. The fasciae of the muscles merged with each other along a straight line joining the free margins of their costal flaps. The serratus anterior muscle surrounds the superior and inferior angles of the scapula and is thus attached to both the surfaces of the bone at these sites.
Les insertions musculaires le long du bord médial de l'omoplate
Résumé Etude des insertions musculaires sur le bord médial de l'omoplate à partir de soixante sujets indiens adultes. Le muscle élévateur de l'omoplate et les muscles grand et petit rhombo?des présentent une insertion scapulaire par deux feuillets. Les feuillets postérieurs de l'élévateur de l'omoplate et du petit rhombo?de s'insèrent sur la face dorsale du bord médial de l'omoplate au niveau de la fosse sus-épineuse et de la racine de l'épine de l'omoplate, tandis que leurs feuillets antérieurs s'insèrent sur la face ventrale du bord spinal de l'omoplate à la hauteur de l'épine de l'omoplate. Les insertions du petit rhombo?de descendent plus bas sur le bord spinal que celles de l'angulaire. Le muscle grand rhombo?de envoie des insertions sur le bord spinal de l'omoplate au niveau de la fosse sous-épineuse jusqu'à la face dorsale de l'angle inférieur de l'omoplate. Les trois muscles recouvrent la surface costale du fascia du muscle dentelé antérieur sur environ trois centimètres. Les aponévroses des 3 muscles se rejoignent le long d'une ligne droite reliant les bords libres de leurs feuillets costaux. Le muscle dentelé antérieur entoure les angles supérieur et inférieur de l'omoplate où il s'insère sur les deux faces de l'os.
  相似文献
7.
A model is developed to describe the formation of platelet thrombi in coronary-artery-sized blood vessels. It involves interactions among a viscous, incompressible fluid; populations of non-activated and activated platelets; activating chemicals; and the vessel walls. Adhesion of platelets to the injured wall and cohesion between activated platelets is modelled using distributions of elastic links which generate stresses that can influence the fluid motion. The first version of the model presented involves two spatial scales: the microscale of the platelets and the macroscale of the vessel. A closure approximation is introduced that allows essential microscale behaviour to be computed while eliminating the necessity to explicitly track events on this scale. Computational methods are presented that meet the diverse challenges posed by the coupled nonlinear partial differential equations of the model and by the complex geometry of the constricted vessels in which the thrombosis simulations are carried out. Simulation results demonstrate that the model can produce thrombi that grow to occlude the vessel, that shear-stress exerted by the fluid on the thrombi can modify their subsequent growth and cause remodelling of their shape through small-scale local changes or large-scale structural breakup.  相似文献
8.
李文元  黄恭康 《解剖与临床》1997,2(3):110-112,M002
骨骼肌系统感染,于MRI T1 WI上多低信号、T2W1上多高信号。骨髓炎时,T1WI上病灶内低信号,可由纤维化造成。炎性肿块T1WI上高信号可由出血引起,而T2WI上肿块内低信号也可由纤维组织形成产生。STIR成像对显示骨骼肌系统病变有高度敏感性。Gd-DTPA增强后,感染病灶内环状强化是提示脓肿形成或组织坏死液化。骨骼肌系统感染,MRI优于X线平片检查,但类似上述MRI表现也可见于骨骼肌系统的其他良性或恶性病史。因此,必须结合临床资料才能正确诊断。  相似文献
9.
Depression of thyroid function by chronic administration of mercazolyl to rats aged from 5–7 days to 4 months causes a reduction in motor activity of the animals, a decrease in the absolute and relative weights of the bones, muscles, and heart, reduced oxygen demand and cardiac activity, and also hypercholesteremia, combined with a fall in the cholesterol level in the skeletal muscle tissues. Delayed growth and development of the musculoskeletal system and the reduced oxygen consumption lead to a decrease in body weight of the experimental rats under the age of 1 month compared with that of control animals. In rats aged 1–4 months, these factors lead to an increase in the gain in weight because of disturbance of lipid metabolism, despite a decrease in weight of the muscles and bones.Laboratory of Age and Comparative Physiology, Institute of General Pathology and Pathological Physiology, Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR, Moscow. (Presented by Academician of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR A. M. Chernukh.) Translated from Byulleten' Éksperimental'noi Biologii i Meditsiny, Vol. 89, No. 3, pp. 287–289, March, 1980.  相似文献
10.
The aging of an organism is the result of complex changes in structure and function of molecules, cells, tissues, and whole body systems. To increase our understanding of how aging works, we have to analyze and integrate quantitative evidence from multiple levels of biological organization. Here, we define a broader conceptual framework for a quantitative, computational systems biology approach to aging. Initially, we consider fractal supply networks that give rise to scaling laws relating body mass, metabolism and lifespan. This approach provides a top-down view of constrained cellular processes. Concomitantly, multi-omics data generation build such a framework from the bottom-up, using modeling strategies to identify key pathways and their physiological capacity. Multiscale spatio-temporal representations finally connect molecular processes with structural organization. As aging manifests on a systems level, it emerges as a highly networked process regulated through feedback loops between levels of biological organization.  相似文献
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