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1.
Tan H  Peng Z  Li Q  Xu X  Guo S  Tang T 《Biomaterials》2012,33(2):365-377
Biomaterial-associated infections remain a serious complication in orthopaedic surgery. Treatments, including the local use of antibiotic-loaded polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement, are not always successful because of multiantibiotic-resistant organisms. In this study, we synthesised a new quaternised chitosan derivative (hydroxypropyltrimethyl ammonium chloride chitosan, HACC) that contains a series of substitutions of quaternary ammonium and demonstrated that HACC with a 26% degree of substitution (DS; referred to as 26%HACC) had a strong antibacterial activity and simultaneously good biocompatibility with osteogenic cells. We loaded 26%HACC at 20% by weight into PMMA bone cement to investigate whether HACC in PMMA prevents bacterial biofilm formation on the surface of bone cements. Chitosan-loaded PMMA (at the same weight ratio), gentamicin-loaded PMMA and PMMA with no antibiotic were also investigated and compared. Two clinical isolates, Staphylococcus epidermidis 389 and methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis (MRSE287), and two standard strains, S. epidermidis (ATCC35984) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC43300), were selected to evaluate the bacterial biofilm formation at 6, 12 and 24 h using the spread plate method, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that 26%HACC-loaded PMMA inhibited biofilm formation on its surface, while the PMMA control and chitosan-loaded PMMA were unable to inhibit biofilm formation. The gentamicin-loaded PMMA decreased the number of viable methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus strains, but its ability to inhibit biofilm formation was lower than 26%HACC-loaded PMMA. Real-time PCR demonstrated that 26%HACC-loaded PMMA markedly downregulated the expression of icaAD, which encodes essential enzymes for polysaccharide intercellular adhesion (PIA) biosynthesis, upregulated the expression level of icaR, which negatively mediates icaAD expression, and also downregulated the expression of MecA, which encodes membrane-bound enzymes known to be penicillin-binding proteins. Our study indicates that 26%HACC-loaded PMMA prevents biofilm formation of Staphylococcus, including antibiotic-resistant strains, on the surface of bone cement, and downregulates the virulence-associated gene expression of antibiotic-resistant staphylococcus, thus providing a promising new strategy for combating implant infections and osteomyelitis.  相似文献
2.
目的研究人工髋关节置换术后脱位失效力学机理以及在术后各时间段引发脱位的具体原因,提出对临床中发生的脱位事件进行失效诊断的具体方法。方法通过建立脱位模型对脱位过程的生物力学机理进行研究,分析脱位失效与临床、产品设计和患者三方面因素的关系。结果提出脱位分析推理路线图,开发并验证专门用于脱位分析的软件工具。结论髋关节脱位失效临床案例分析表明,该人工髋关节脱位分析方法与工具能够帮助判断具体脱位事件的产生原因,确定假体设计、术中植入位置与脱位事件之间的关系。同时可在术前确定假体最佳植入位置并分析脱位发生的可能风险,对假体设计也有指导作用。  相似文献
3.
本文阐述了国内外针对人工关节失效所开展的统计工作及其取得的主要结果。从临床需求、生物力学和工程学的观点提出导致失效的基础技术、制造工艺、临床条件等三方面因素,阐述了人工关节相关技术进一步发展的需求,并提出推动我国人工关节失效统计工作的若干建议。  相似文献
4.
目的从力学角度分析利用Endobutton治疗肩锁关节脱位术后复位丢失和固定装置力臂之间的相关性。方法在2009年3月~2010年12月间,对24例肩锁关节脱位患者采用了Endobutton技术进行手术治疗。比较术后3 d以及术后6个月的喙锁间距离,观察复位丢失情况。同时将锁骨表面Endobutton钢板中心点到锁骨内缘的长度和整根锁骨长度的比值作为力臂,对复位丢失和固定装置力臂进行相关性分析。结果所有的24例患者在术中都得到良好的复位,肩锁关节和喙锁之间的距离恢复正常。术后3 d测量喙锁间距为(28.2±3.9)mm,术后6个月时为(29.5±4.1)mm,平均丢失(1.3±1.2)mm。平均力臂为(0.79±0.03)。两者之间存在相关性,相关系数为-0.498(P<0.05)。结论 Endobutton钢板治疗肩锁关节脱位术后的复位丢失和固定物在锁骨上的安放位置存在相关性,随着力臂的缩短,复位的丢失将会增加。固定装置比较合适的力臂为0.80。  相似文献
5.
生物反应器在组织工程研究中的应用   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
生物反应器在组织工程研究中的应用非常广泛,从最初的种子细胞增殖、分化,到关键的组织体外构建,都可以利用生物反应器来模拟细胞和组织在体内的生长环境,提高工程化组织构建的效率。本文结合本期发表的6篇相关文献,介绍了组织工程中研究中生物反应器的作用,建议通过包括生物力学在内的多学科的研究手段,获得调控不同类型细胞生长和组织构建的关键参数,实现功能化组织工程的研究目标。  相似文献
6.
目的 结合流体力学模型研究灌注式生物反应器中大段组织工程化骨的构建与多孔支架内流体剪切力的关系。方法 利用灌注式生物反应器对复合骨髓基质干细胞的多孔磷酸三钙支架进行灌注培养。培养基的黏度分别为1.12mPa?s, 2.23mPa?s及3.35mPa?s。通过细胞增殖、成骨分化及组织形态学评价组织工程化骨的构建,建立流体力学模型,求解支架内的流体剪切力。结果 培养基黏度2.23mPa?s组,细胞增殖高于其他组。培养基黏度2.23mPa?s及3.35mPa?s组第28d的碱性磷酸酶活性及第7d后的骨钙素分泌高于1.12mPa?s组。培养基黏度越高,骨桥蛋白的分泌高峰出现越早。28d后,黏度3.35mPa?s组的钙化基质最多。流体力学模型分析,培养基黏度1.12mPa?s, 2.23mPa?s及3.35mPa?s组中,支架内的平均流体剪切力分别为5mPa, 11mPa和15mPa。结论 在利用复合人骨髓基质干细胞的多孔磷酸三钙构建大段组织工程化骨的过程中,15mPa的流体剪切力最有利于组织工程化骨的构建。  相似文献
7.
Wear particle-induced aseptic prosthetic loosening is one of the most common reasons for total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Extensive bone destruction (osteolysis) by osteoclasts plays an important role in wear particle-induced peri-implant loosening. Thus, strategies for inhibiting osteoclast function may have therapeutic benefit for prosthetic loosening. Here, we mimicked the process of magnesium (Mg) degradation in vivo and obtained Mg leach liquor (MLL) by immersing pure Mg in culture medium. For the first time, we demonstrated that MLL suppresses osteoclast formation, polarization, and osteoclast bone resorption in vitro. An in vivo assay demonstrated that MLL attenuates wear particle-induced osteolysis. Furthermore, we found that MLL significantly inhibits nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation by retarding inhibitor-κB degradation and subsequent NF-κB nuclear translocation. We also found that MLL attenuates the expression of NFATc1 at both the protein and mRNA levels. These results demonstrate that MLL has anti-osteoclast activity in vitro and prevents wear particle-induced osteolysis in vivo. Collectively, our study suggests that metallic magnesium, one of the orthopedic implants with superior properties, has significant potential for the treatment of osteolysis-related diseases caused by excessive osteoclast formation and function.  相似文献
8.
Wear-particle-induced osteolysis leads to prosthesis loosening, which is one of the most common causes of joint-implant failure, a problem that must be fixed using revision surgery. Thus, a potential treatment for prosthetic loosening is focused on inhibiting osteoclastic bone resorption, which prevents wear-particle-induced osteolysis. In this study, we synthesized a compound named OA-14 (N-(3- (dodecylcarbamoyl)phenyl)-1H-indole-2-carboxamide) and examined how OA-14 affects titanium (Ti)-particle-induced osteolysis and osteoclastogenesis. We report that OA-14 treatment protected against Ti-particle-induced osteolysis in a mouse calvarial model. Interestingly, the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive osteoclasts decreased after treatment with OA-14 in vivo, which suggested that OA-14 inhibits osteoclast formation. To test this hypothesis, we conducted in vitro studies, and our results revealed that OA-14 markedly diminished osteoclast differentiation and osteoclast-specific gene expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Moreover, OA-14 suppressed osteoclastic bone resorption and F-actin ring formation. Furthermore, we determined that OA-14 inhibited osteoclastogenesis by specifically blocking the p38-Mitf-c-fos-NFATc1 signaling cascade induced by RANKL (ligand of receptor activator of nuclear factor κB). Collectively, our results suggest that the compound OA-14 can be safely used for treating particle-induced peri-implant osteolysis and other diseases caused by excessive osteoclast formation and function.  相似文献
9.
《医用生物力学》创刊于1986年,是一本反映国内外生物力学科研和临床工作最新成果和进展、促进国内外生物力学学科学术交流的科技期刊。截止2016年6月,杂志共出版31卷124期正刊,在刊物质量、学术影响力等方面均取得了较大的进步。本文回顾《医用生物力学》杂志30年的发展历程,并从提高期刊质量、推进期刊数字化建设和加强期刊国际化程度三方面对杂志今后的工作进行展望。  相似文献
10.
目的应用显微CT和微有限元分析评估微损伤、微骨折骨小梁的应力、应变,探讨骨质疏松症对骨小梁应力和微损伤、微骨折之间关系的影响。方法通过显微CT扫描健康和骨质疏松人体髋臼松质骨,构建松质骨块三维微有限元模型,在无摩擦的位移边界条件下模拟松质骨块的单轴压缩实验,通过非线性微有限元分析得到在不同表观应变下骨小梁的应力、应变、微损伤和微骨折。结果 0.05%~0.50%表观应变下,健康和骨质疏松松质骨未损伤骨小梁的应力在50 MPa以下,微损伤骨小梁应力在110 MPa以上。健康松质骨骨小梁的平均应力相对较高,骨质疏松松质骨骨小梁最高应力值相对较高。健康和骨质疏松松质骨骨小梁均出现微损伤,健康松质骨骨小梁微损伤较多,骨质疏松骨骨小梁出现微骨折。结论在表观小应变范围内,健康松质骨骨小梁能承受更高的应力,出现较多的微损伤,而骨质疏松松质骨高应力骨小梁群内出现微骨折。  相似文献
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